The shopping arcade debuted in the United States in 1828. Over the next 90 years, several more were built. A partial listing of these would include the following;

PULLMAN'S ARCADE (1885) {Chicago, Illinois},
CLEVELAND ARCADE (1890) {Cleveland, Ohio},
NASHVILLE ARCADE (1902) {Nashville, Tennessee},
DAYTON ARCADE (1904) {Dayton, Ohio},
PLANKINTON ARCADE (1916) {Milwaukee, Wisconsin} 
and
PEACHTREE ARCADE (1917) {Atlanta, Georgia}.

Sometimes classed as shopping malls, arcades are really not malls in the traditional sense. The (quote / unquote) "shopping mall", which debuted in the early 1950s, was suburban in orientation and regional in scope. The typical "mall" was surrounded by a large auto parking lot and featured at least 1 large department store as its "anchor".

Arcades were always located in a central city and were not regional in format. They were never situated in the middle of a vast parking area and their retail area was, more often than not, leased to small, boutique-type stores. 

The traditional mall and shopping arcade do share one similarity. All arcades -and most shopping malls- feature a fully-enclosed retail concourse.